|Table of Contents||¡¡||
Chapter 1 Introduction of Praat
1) Connect a high-quality microphone to the MIC input of your computer, and then choose ¡°New¡± on the top menu.Select ¡°Record mono record¡± and the Sound Recorder window will appear.
2) Set the sampling rate to 220500Hz which is the sufficient rate, and then you can take a deep breath and click the ¡°Record¡± button to start your recording. When you finish, click the ¡°Stop¡± button. You can use the ¡°play¡± button to hear what you have recorded. Repeat steps 2 and 3 until you are satisfied with your recording.
3) If the recording is to your satisfaction, you can add a name for the recording in the blank after ¡°Name¡± and click on the ¡°Save to list & Close¡± button. This will put your recording in the ¡°object window¡±.
2. Select the sound file and then click "View & Edit". When you open the Editor window, the sound¡¯s waveform and spectrogram will be shown on the top and the bottom respectively.
1) Display the pitch track by selecting the ¡°Pitch¡± on the top of the editor window and tick ¡°Show pitch¡±
2) Display the formants by selecting the ¡°Formant¡± on the top of the editor window and tick ¡°Show formant¡±
3) Display the intensity by selecting the ¡°Intensity¡± on the top of the editor window and tick ¡°Show intensity¡±
5. Select ¡°Read from file¡± from the ¡°Open¡± on the top of Praat Objects Window, Praat will read the files from your computer.
6. You can find the total duration of the recordings at the bottom and the duration of your selected part below the spectrum.
1) Display the pitch track: Pitch¨¤Show pitch
2) At this point, several blue contours will be placed on the spectrogram representing the pitch. You can place the cursor at the point and read the blue number on the right side of the window.
3) Or you can position the cursor in a stable middle part of the blue track and click ¡°Pitch ¡°and then select ¡°Get pitch¡±. A local pitch value will be displayed in a separate window.
8. If you want to cut, copy, and paste between the sounds, you can open more than one sound, and then select ¡°cut¡±, ¡°copy¡±, and ¡°paste¡± between the sounds by moving a selected part of the sound to another location, and using ¡°cut¡± and ¡°paste¡± from the ¡°edit¡± menu.
9. You can adjust some of the pitch settings through¡°Pitch¡± on the top of the editor window and then select ¡°Pitch setting¡±. If the pitch contour is too low in the spectrogram, you can increase the maximum value of the pitch range (e.g. increase from 400 to 500); if the pitch contour is too high, you can decrease the maximum value of the pitch range (e.g. increase from 400 to 300).
1) Find the picture window first. If you accidentally closed it, just reopen Praat.
2) Determine the physical size of the plot by changing the selection in the ¡®Praat picture¡¯ window (pink rectangular shape) before you draw the graph. Click in an area of the 'Praat picture¡¯ window (e.g., left upper corner) and while keeping the left-mouse button pressed, draw the new shape.
3) Choose the given recording file on the left-hand side of Praat objects and click the ¡°Draw¡± button. Set these parameters as you¡¯d like. The next picture shows the spectrogram painted to the Praat Picture window
2. It means when you pronounce a vowel, your tongue and the top of the mouth is close in distance and the front part of the tongue is raised
4. It appears as broad horizontal darkened bands and red spots in spectrogram.
5. F1: The first formant (F1) in vowels is inversely related to vowel height, i.e. the higher the formant frequency, the lower the vowel height (and vice versa).
F2: The second formant (F2) in vowels is somewhat related to the degree of backness, i.e. the more front the vowel, the higher the second formant (but affected by lip-rounding).
F3: The lower of the formant frequency, the rounder the shape of the lip e.g. /U/, /u¨´/, but F3 is not as frequently used as F1 and F2.
6. /U/ or /u¨´/ , because low F3 indicates the rounded shape of the lip.
1) Position the cursor in a stable and middle part of the sound and do the following
2) Go to ¡®Editor¡¯¨¤ ¡®Formants¡¯ ¨¤¡¯Formant Listing,¡¯ which will give you values for F1, F2, F3 and F4, along with the time point at which the measurements were taken.
10. Front close.
1. They are characterized by a stop gap, a strong vertical spike, and aspiration.
2. Because there is no production of energy when you pronounce that plosive. Stop gap refers to the silent period in the closure phase
3. It is the time interval of plosives including the spike, a short frication noise after the spike, and the aspiration.
4. Voiced fricatives/f, T, s, S/ have weaker formants.
5. The turbulent noise is characterized by a chaotic mix of random frequencies, each lasting for a very brief time. We can see a scribbly pattern on the spectrogram for turbulent noise.
6. There is a stop gap and fricative noise.
7. The fricative noise of voiceless /tS/ is longer than the voiced /dZ/.
8. They have faint formant structures and they all have a low F1.
10. The following spectrogram is thin.
Comparison of /n/ and / ŋ / in thin and thing:
The F1 of both /n/ and /N/ is very faint and low. And we can find that the F2 of /n/ in thin has a level transition and the transition for the velar points up merging with the F3, while the F2 of /N/ in thing is almost invisible.
1. Stress is manifested as rise in pitch, greater intensity (loudness) or greater vowel length. We mainly use pitch contour in Praat to represent the stress.
2. The stressed syllable is longer than the unstressed
3. REcord (noun) ReCORD(verb)
4. B is the picture for the noun of ¡°contrast¡±
5. The stressed syllables have a higher pitch than the unstressed ones.
1) Find the stop release
2) Find the start of voicing
3) Select the span between these two points
4) Read the duration of the selection (in seconds) from the duration bar along the bottom of the Editor window
If the start of voicing came before the stop release, the VOT is negative. Otherwise, the VOT is positive.
a. Consonant-to-consonant (CC) linking (e.g., ¡°that time¡±)
b. Consonant-to-vowel (CV) linking (e.g. ¡°kind of¡±)
c. Vowel-to-vowel (VV) linking (e.g. ¡°say it¡±)
In Praat, we can decide whether there is linking by measuring the duration of CC, CV, and VV.
9. In Praat, we mainly use pitch contour to indicate different tones, like falling and rising tones. We can follow steps below to see the pitch contours.
1) Select the sound in object list
2) Click View & Edit
3) Pitch tick show pitch
1) Falling tone : the speaker is quite certain, only seeking confirmation / agreement
2) Rising tone: the speaker is unsure, a genuine request for more information
1. TextGrid is an annotation/labeling object with one or more layers or tiers
2. You can create a TextGrid object by selecting ¡°New¡± on the top of Praat Objects Window Create TextGrid or, select the sound you want to annotate, then use the dynamic buttons: Annotate- > To TextGrid. Following this you will see a window which asks for the ¡°Start time(s)¡±, ¡°End time(s)¡± and ¡°All tiers names¡± (be sure to write all the tiers names), and, ¡°Which are the point tiers¡± among all tiers (the others are interval tiers by default). If you have no point tier, you can just leave it as blank.
3. You can open the sound file and the text grid by selecting both the speech object and the text grid (they share the same name) using the CTRL-key (click on speech object, depress CTRL-key and then click on Text grid) and press ¡°View and Edit¡± on the right hand side of the window and the following window will appear:
2) Determine the physical size of the plot by changing the selection in the ¡®Praat picture¡¯ window (pink rectangular shape) before you draw the graph. Click in an area of the 'Praat picture¡¯ window (e.g., left upper corner) and while keeping the left-mouse button depressed draw the new shape.
3) Now close the ¡®TextGrid¡¯ window, make sure both objects (sound + TextGrid) are selected in the main ¡®PRAAT objects¡¯ window, and choose 'draw' from the menu on the right side of window (stick to default values).
4) This will create a plot in the 'picture window' as follows with the acoustic signal and the labels below it (in this case only for the middle sentence).
5. Once your TextGrid file has been finished as above, you will want to save the TextGrid file
a) From the objects window (Objects¨¤Save¨¤Save as Text File)
b) From Textgrid editor (Textgrid Editor¨¤File ¨¤ Save Textgrid as Text File)